Friday, 18 June 2021

Census 2020: Singapore population growth at slowest pace since 1965

More staying single while those who marry are having fewer babies, latest census shows
By Grace Ho, Senior Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

Singapore's population grew at its slowest pace since independence, with more residents staying single and even those who marry having fewer babies.

The nation's sixth census since independence in 1965 also found other key trends set in motion decades ago to have solidified further. Singapore residents of all ages and races are now better educated and more do not consider themselves as having a religion.

Conducted once every 10 years, the census is the largest national survey undertaken here on key characteristics of the population such as demographic, social, economic and employment trends.

More findings from the Census of Population 2020 will be released tomorrow.

Over the past 10 years, Singapore's total population grew by 1.1 per cent each year - the lowest decade of growth since independence.

The number of citizens grew from 3.23 million to 3.52 million, while the number of permanent residents held steady at around half a million.

The population is ageing. Those aged 65 years and older formed 15.2 per cent of the resident population last year, a marked rise from 9 per cent in 2010.


In a trend that has implications for continued population growth, the proportion of singles rose across all age groups over the past 10 years, with the sharpest increase among younger Singaporeans aged 25 to 34 years.

Less-educated men were more likely to stay single, whereas the opposite was true of women.

Women, especially if they were more educated, had fewer children. The average number of children born per resident woman aged 40 to 49 years who had ever been married fell from 2.02 in 2010 to 1.76 last year.

Within this age group, women who were university graduates had an average of 1.66 children last year - marking a steady decline from 1.74 children 10 years ago and 1.95 in 2000.


Singaporeans are also better educated. Among residents aged 25 years and over, almost six in 10 (58.3 per cent) attained post-secondary or higher qualifications, up from less than half (46.5 per cent) in 2010. The Chinese, Malay and Indian communities all saw improvements.

Women closed the educational gap with men in each successive cohort. When it came to those aged 25 to 34 years, the proportion of women (90.2 per cent) with post-secondary or higher qualifications exceeded men (90 per cent).

English was the language most frequently spoken at home for 48.3 per cent of residents aged five years and over last year, up from 32.3 per cent in 2010. Most of them also spoke a vernacular language at home.

There are growing numbers of Singaporeans who cite no religious affiliation.

The proportion was 20 per cent last year, up 3 percentage points from a decade ago. This number was 15 per cent in 2000.

The increase took place across all age groups and most types of educational qualifications.


At a media briefing on Monday, Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Indranee Rajah said the census data showed Singaporeans had enjoyed significant progress over the past 10 years, and that the country remains multiracial, multi-religious and multilingual.

Observing that Singapore citizens account for a greater proportion of population growth in this decade, she said: "Singaporeans who wish to start and raise families remain a priority because we want to grow the Singapore population, the Singapore core. At the same time, we have to supplement our population with some immigration, because we also need to support our economy. But that has to be very carefully calibrated."













Fewer Singaporeans marrying and having children: Population census
By Grace Ho, Senior Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

In a trend reflecting the generational changes in attitudes towards marriage and parenthood, fewer Singaporeans are getting married and having children than they were 10 years ago, with younger Singaporeans more likely to stay single.

The proportion of married residents dropped slightly, to 58.8 per cent last year from 59.4 per cent in 2010, according to the population census released yesterday.

Those who were either divorced or separated increased from 3.3 per cent in 2010 to 4.3 per cent last year.

There continued to be a larger share of widowed residents among women than men, partly due to the higher life expectancy of women.

Last year, the proportion of residents who were widowed was 8.4 per cent for women, compared with 1.9 per cent for men.


While the proportion of singles rose across all age groups, the increase was most prominent for those aged 25 to 34 years.

Between 2010 and last year, the proportion of singles among residents aged 25 to 29 years rose from 74.6 per cent to 81.6 per cent for men, and from 54 per cent to 69 per cent for women.

Women also had fewer children compared with a decade ago, with the average number of children born among resident ever-married females aged 40-49 years decreasing from 2.02 per woman in 2010 to 1.76 in 2020.


The reasons for this are complex. Some reasons cited over the years range from couples marrying later and having fewer children, to the financial burden and educational stress of raising children.

The decline took place across all ethnic and educational groups.

Malay residents had the highest average at 2.43 children per woman aged 40 to 49 years, although this was a decrease from 2.73 in 2010. There was also a fall in the average number of children born to Chinese (1.65) and Indian (1.86) mothers aged 40 to 49 years.

University graduates aged 40 to 49 years had an average of 1.66 children last year, lower than the 1.94 average among those with secondary qualifications.

While those with two children continued to form the largest group among resident women who had ever been married, the proportion of those aged 40 to 49 years with three children fell from 22.3 per cent in 2010 to 15.5 per cent last year. Those with only one child increased from 19 per cent to 24 per cent.

Correspondingly, the proportion of ever-married women in this age group who had never given birth increased from 9.3 per cent to 13.5 per cent last year.

Institute of Policy Studies' head of governance and economy Christopher Gee said Singaporean men and women of different educational attainment and other socio-economic characteristics, if unable to find a suitable partner, may look beyond the resident population pool. "We have seen an increase in the number and proportion of transnational marriages in the past decade," he said.

"Higher educational attainment will mean a delay in achieving the milestones that may be desired before people consider marriage and family formation.

"As time passes, and both marriage and parenthood are deferred, the risk increases that women pass their peak child-bearing age and family formation reduces."

Covid-19 could deal a further blow to fertility, he added.

"Census 2020 data really only captures marriage and family formation intentions from 2019 and a little earlier. The disruptions arising from the pandemic to lives and livelihoods are likely to result in a prolonged impact on marriage and family formation, at least for a few years still."













100,000 Singapore residents face difficulties performing basic activities: Population census
By Malavika Menon, The Straits Times, 18 Jun 2021

Close to 100,000 residents in Singapore last year were unable to perform or had difficulty performing one basic activity, such as self-care, according to the population census report released by the Department of Statistics on Friday (June 18).

Among these residents, 62,500 people faced mobility challenges such as walking and climbing steps, while the second-largest group - 32,100 residents - indicated they were unable to or had a lot of difficulty performing self-care activities like washing or dressing.

It is the first time the census is capturing data on residents who experienced difficulties in Singapore, which has a rapidly ageing population.

In total, 150,000 households were surveyed for the 2020 report.


Out of the 97,600 residents who experienced difficulties across six domains - seeing; hearing; mobility; self care; communication; and concentrating or remembering - 69,400 were aged 65 and older, or 11.2 per cent of all senior residents.

The census also showed that about nine in 10 senior residents live with a family member, such as a spouse or a child.

Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Indranee Rajah said the data collected in this area will help inform future policy decision on housing and care facilities.

For example, it will help in planning the number and types of care facilities available - such as senior activity centres or home-based care facilities - within an estate.

"Our population is ageing. We've indicated that by 2030, one in four is going to be aged 65 and above. This has all sorts of policy implications for us," added Ms Indranee, who oversees the National Population and Talent Division.

"Knowing where the seniors are, knowing the age and what they are able to do tells you what kind of housing you need to provide for them," she said, noting that the Government is looking into providing seniors with access to homes near where their adult children live.


In terms of gender, more than 12 per cent of women aged 65 and above were unable to perform or had difficulty performing at least one basic activity, compared with about 9 per cent of men in the same age group.

Senior volunteer Maimunah Ibrahim said additional care facilities and activities for the elderly where they live would help them stay positive and prevent the feeling of isolation.

The 62-year-old retired hotel chambermaid has served over 23 seniors in the last five years as a befriender.

She joined the Community Befriending Programme as a volunteer to give back to the community and stay active after her retirement.

"Many of the seniors live alone and just need to receive a helping hand or see a friendly face once in awhile. Once the pandemic is over, I hope there will be facilities for seniors to stay active around their neighbourhood, and more support to help them do things they cannot do for themselves," said Madam Maimunah.

Before the pandemic, she would bring dishes like fried noodles and cookies along with her when meeting seniors.

She would also take them for a stroll below their block or help them get their food rations or attend a medical appointment.

She cannot meet them in person now, so she engages the seniors by calling or chatting with them at their front door.


While the majority facing difficulties were seniors, about three in 10 were between 15 and 64 years old.

In this age group, about one in three was employed.

The highest participation rate - 45.7 per cent - came from those who were unable or had difficulty hearing, and those with sight issues (36.5 per cent).

Of those with jobs aged 15 and above, close to six in 10 residents took public transport to work.

About 16 per cent travelled to work by car, taxi or private-hire cars, while the same proportion did not require any transport.

The census found that the highest number of residents who were unable to perform or had difficulty performing at least one basic activity lived in Bedok, Jurong West and Tampines.

Bedok had 8,200 such residents - the highest number - which corresponded to its larger population size.

Across the different residential areas, the census also found a low proportion, around 1 per cent to 4 per cent, of residents aged five and over who were unable to perform or had difficulty performing at least one basic activity.










Singapore population better educated across age, ethnicity; women make greater strides
Disparities remain between ethnicities, particularly in getting university degrees
By Justin Ong, Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

Residents in Singapore across different age and ethnic groups have attained higher educational qualifications over the past decade, according to a population census released yesterday.

The first of two reports issued by the Department of Statistics (DOS) also revealed that in education, female residents have made more significant progress.

Disparities remain between ethnicities, particularly in obtaining university degrees.

The census - conducted every 10 years - surveyed 150,000 households last year for its latest iteration. It focuses mainly on the resident population, which comprises citizens and permanent residents.

Singapore's total population rose from 5.077 million in 2010 to 5.686 million last year.


For residents aged 25 and above, close to six in 10 had post-secondary, diploma and professional qualifications or university-level credentials - up from less than half the population in 2010.

The largest increase here was in the proportion of university graduates, which jumped 9 percentage points from 23.7 per cent in 2010 to 33 per cent last year.

These findings include residents upgrading themselves through part-time courses.

All age groups registered an increased share of residents with at least post-secondary qualifications. Last year, this proportion was nine out of 10 among those aged 25 to 34, and more than eight in 10 for the 35-to 44-year-olds.

But over the decade, it was those aged 45 to 54 who saw the most significant improvement in educational profile. In 2010, the largest proportion of this group - 37.4 per cent - were those with qualifications below secondary level. Last year, this had changed to university graduates (35.5 per cent).


Over the years, female residents have also narrowed the education gap with males.

Among women aged 55 and above last year, 22.8 per cent had post-secondary or higher qualifications, compared with 34 per cent for men.

For 35-to 44-year-olds, the corresponding figures were 81.8 per cent for women and 84.2 per cent for men.

The proportion for younger women, aged 25 to 34, was 90.2 per cent, marginally higher than for their male counterparts (90 per cent).

DOS noted, however, that in this age group, some men could still be pursuing higher education, after completing their national service.

The three major ethnic groups also saw positive changes, with the proportion of university graduates increasing across the board last year for the Chinese (34.7 per cent), Malays (10.8 per cent) and Indians (41.3 per cent).

For the Chinese, this education profile registered the largest jump, up from 23.2 per cent in 2010.

The Malays and Indians were most improved in the area of below-secondary qualifications, with a drop from 41.4 per cent to 28.9 per cent for the Malays and from 23.8 per cent to 18.3 per cent for the Indians.

Census data also showed that business and administration continued to be the most common university field of study, attracting 31.2 per cent of male graduates and 39 per cent of females last year.

For men, the next largest group (27.2 per cent) majored in engineering sciences, while the corresponding group for women (14.9 per cent) opted for the humanities and social sciences.










More residents have no religious affiliation compared with 10 years ago
By Grace Ho, Senior Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

While Singapore remains religiously diverse, more residents aged 15 years and above reported having no religious affiliation compared with 10 years ago.

This increase cut across most types of educational qualifications as well as all age groups, and was more prevalent among younger and Chinese residents, according to the latest population census released yesterday.

The proportion of those with no religious affiliation rose by three percentage points to 20 per cent last year.

Chinese residents had a significantly larger proportion who identified as such (25.7 per cent) than Malays (0.4 per cent) and Indians (2.2 per cent).

Among Singapore residents aged 15 years and above last year, 31.1 per cent identified themselves as Buddhists, 8.8 per cent as Taoists, 18.9 per cent as Christians, 15.6 per cent as Muslims and 5 per cent as Hindus.

Over the past decade, the share of Christians and Muslims increased slightly while the share of Buddhists and Taoists decreased slightly.

Among the Chinese, Buddhists remained the largest group at 40.4 per cent in 2020, despite a decrease from 43 per cent in 2010.

Some 98.8 per cent of Malays were Muslims, a number relatively unchanged from 10 years ago.

Hinduism remained the most common religion for Indians (57.3 per cent) in 2020, followed by Islam (23.4 per cent), Christianity (12.6 per cent) and Sikhism (3.4 per cent).

Younger residents were more likely to have no religious affiliation, although the proportion of Singapore residents who identified as such rose across all age groups.

In 2020, 24.2 per cent of residents aged 15 to 24 years reported having no religious affiliation, higher than the 15.2 per cent for residents aged 55 years and over.

A larger proportion of older residents were Buddhists or Taoists compared with those in younger age groups.

While Buddhists accounted for 35.1 per cent and Taoists accounted for 13.1 per cent of residents aged 55 years and over in 2020, the corresponding proportions were lower at 24.9 per cent and 4.9 per cent among residents aged 15 to 24 years.

In contrast, a larger proportion of residents in younger age groups reported themselves as Muslims than those in the older age groups.

The proportion of Christians was similar across all age groups.

The proportion of residents without religious affiliation also increased across most types of educational qualifications.

Among those with below-secondary qualifications, the proportion without religious affiliation increased from 9.9 per cent to 11.6 per cent.

The proportion for those with university qualifications increased from 24.2 per cent to 27.8 per cent.


Singapore Management University associate professor of law Eugene Tan said that not having a religious affiliation does not mean that one is an atheist.

Rather, he explained, it means that one does not identify with any particular religion for now. "One possibility is that Singaporeans are seeking to be firm in their religious affiliations, and so spend more time inquiring about the different religions."

What is important, he said, is maintaining a secular approach to governance in Singapore, given that the proportions among the various religions, as well as those without one, will evolve with time.

The census - conducted every 10 years - surveyed 150,000 households in 2020 for its latest iteration. It focuses mainly on the resident population, which comprises citizens and permanent residents. Singapore's total population rose from 5.077 million in 2010 to 5.686 million last year.













English spoken most frequently at home by nearly half of residents
By Justin Ong, Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

Citizens and permanent residents across age and ethnic groups in Singapore are now more literate in two or more languages than they were in 2010.

Most of them also speak more than one language at home - with the choice most frequently English.

These were the findings of a decennial population census released by the Department of Statistics yesterday.

Overall, the proportion of residents aged 15 and above who can read and write remained high, at 97.1 per cent in 2020 versus 95.9 per cent in 2010.

The proportion of multi-language literates rose from 70.5 per cent a decade ago to 74.3 per cent today.

Nine out of 10 in the younger cohort of 15-to 24-year-olds are literate in two or more languages - a share that has stayed constant from 2010.

Those aged 45 to 54 clocked the biggest rise in multi-language literacy, from 63.6 per cent in 2010 to 80 per cent in 2020.

Across the three major ethnic groups, an overall increase in English literacy corresponded with a decrease in literacy in only mother tongue languages.

In 2020, more than six in 10 Chinese could read and write in English and Chinese.

The proportions were more than eight in 10 for the Malays literate in English and Malay, and around four in 10 for Indians literate in English and Tamil.

Some 17 per cent of Chinese continued to be literate in Chinese only, compared with 9 per cent for Malays and 3.2 per cent for Tamils in their respective mother tongues.


When it came to communication at home, 48.3 per cent of residents surveyed spoke English most frequently, up from 32.3 per cent a decade ago.

Compared with other languages, Mandarin and Chinese dialects saw the largest percentage-point fall (5.7 and 5.6) in share of residents who used them most commonly at home.

Among those who spoke English most at home, more than four in five also spoke a vernacular language.

For a greater proportion of ethnic Chinese residents, English has taken over as the language most frequently spoken at home (47.6 per cent). In 2010, Mandarin was the first choice for 47.7 per cent of them.

Malays continued to favour using Malay at home, although the share of those doing so dropped from 82.7 per cent in 2010 to 60.7 per cent in 2020. In this time period, those turning to English more than doubled in percentage points, from 17 per cent to 39 per cent.

For Indians, a larger proportion continued to speak English most commonly at home, going up from 41.6 per cent in 2010 to a majority 59.2 per cent in 2020.

The census found that across ethnic groups, frequent English use at home rose for all ages and education profiles, but it was generally more prevalent among younger cohorts and those with higher academic qualifications.

For example, the age groups that saw the largest jumps in proportion were the 15-to 24-year-old Chinese (28.5 percentage points), five-to 14-year-old Malays (37.2) and 25-to 34-year-old Indians (33.8).

Among residents with university degrees, English was the preferred medium at home for around six in 10 of Chinese, Malays and Indians each.

For those with below-secondary qualifications, the equivalent figures were 9.6 per cent of Chinese, 13.5 per cent of Malays and 34 per cent of Indians.

The census surveyed 150,000 households in 2020 for its latest iteration. It focuses mainly on the resident population, which comprises citizens and permanent residents. Singapore's total population rose from 5.077 million in 2010 to 5.686 million in 2020.







Race-based data in population census needed for Singapore to help ethnic groups meaningfully: Indranee Rajah
Population data broken down by ethnicity is done with the best of intentions, she says
By Justin Ong, Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 17 Jun 2021

Data categorised by ethnicity remains relevant to Singapore and is done with the "best of intentions", to ensure no group is inadvertently left behind, and to know where to intervene with help.

Explaining why population data is broken down by ethnicity, Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Indranee Rajah said at a media briefing on the release of Singapore's population census yesterday: "To the extent that any group may not be doing as well as any others in any areas, then it tells us that as a society and in terms of policy, we should do something to try and make sure that we can bridge any gap."

The census is conducted every decade by the Department of Statistics. Its latest findings showed that the ethnic composition of the resident population has remained stable - with 74.3 per cent Chinese, 13.5 per cent Malays and 9 per cent Indians.

Singapore's total population rose from 5.077 million in 2010 to 5.686 million last year. The resident population comprises citizens and permanent residents.

Ms Indranee, who oversees the National Population and Talent Division, was asked if it was useful to continue presenting data according to ethnicity rather than socio-economic indicators like income - particularly when the figures might reveal stark disparities.

In the area of education, for example, the proportion of university graduates last year was 34.7 per cent for the Chinese, 10.8 per cent for Malays and 41.3 per cent for Indians.


Ms Indranee said such questions assume "all will be well" in the absence of such breakdowns.

"If you didn't have this data, then let's say that a particular ethnic group was not doing well compared with the others, you would have no idea how many (people), you would have no idea in what areas, you wouldn't know whether the problem was education or whether the problem was something else," she explained.

"All you would have is just one big block of data… And you would not, for example, be able to reach or address those groups in a way that is meaningful to them."

She acknowledged the importance of not presenting such race-based data in a manner that leads to divisiveness or finger-pointing.

The Government has put out race-based statistics with the right balance - enough for people to know where different groups are heading, but not in such a way as to be inimical to any group, she said.

Ms Indranee added she had noticed that social media conversations often pinpoint the few instances where the Government relies on race-based data, but without the full picture.

In school, for instance, if students are not faring well, basic remedial classes are offered to students of all races.

"It's (only) a small subset where they may come from family backgrounds where the parents speak only in the vernacular, where there are certain issues that may be tied to ethnicity or culture," Ms Indranee noted.

"And the only way you're able to address them is on their own terms, which is through their own cultural and ethnic lens, and that was the basic thinking behind setting up the self-help groups."

There are four race-based self-help groups: the Chinese Development Assistance Council, the Singapore Indian Development Association (Sinda), Yayasan Mendaki and the Eurasian Association.

Ms Indranee, who is Sinda president, stressed that these groups were not the "be-all and end-all".


She also said that events of the past few weeks have shown that being multiracial, multi-religious and multilingual was still very important to Singapore.

One of these was a video showing a Chinese man making racist remarks at a mixed-race couple. Another was a clip of a Chinese woman interrupting her neighbour's Hindu prayers.

Ms Indranee said racism has existed since the dawn of time - and as a matter of concern for Singapore since its independence.

"It is an ugly thing. We shouldn't have it. You have to fight against it. It comes up from time to time because people have frustrations, they may have personal angst," she said. "When we see it, we should deal with it firmly."

But Ms Indranee also said this did not mean that Singapore would reach a "post-race" stage, nor that the country would disregard markers like religion or language.

"What it means is that you must work very hard to make sure that the different races, religions, languages - with all their wonderful differences which we celebrate - can actually live together peacefully and harmoniously," she said.

"And that's constantly a work in progress."






















Household incomes in Singapore rise amid more working couples
Median household income from work up from $5,600 in 2010 to $7,744 last year
By Justin Ong, Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 19 Jun 2021

Households in Singapore across all major ethnic groups have brought in higher incomes over the past 10 years amid a growing trend of married, dual-career couples.

More Singapore residents are also living in condominiums and apartments now, and households with fewer members are becoming more common.


These were among key findings in the second of a two-part census report released by the Department of Statistics yesterday.

The census is an official count of the resident population - encompassing citizens and permanent residents - conducted every decade.


A total of 150,000 households were surveyed in the latest edition, which also collected, for the first time, data on geographic distribution of workplaces and difficulty in performing basic activities.

Overall median household income from work had risen 3.3 per cent per annum from $5,600 in 2010 to $7,744 last year - or 1.9 per cent in real terms, factoring in inflation. After accounting for household size, median household income from work per household member increased by 4.2 per cent per annum from $1,638 to $2,463 - or 2.8 per cent in real terms.


These jumps were reflected in the rising proportion of households in higher-income brackets.

Those earning at least $9,000 a month grew from 29.7 per cent in 2010 to 44.2 per cent last year.

Significantly, the share of households earning at least $20,000 more than doubled from 6.6 per cent to 13.9 per cent. This group also formed the largest proportion of households last year.

In contrast, the largest proportion in 2010 - 16.2 per cent - was for those earning between $3,000 and $4,999. This figure dropped to 10.6 per cent last year.

The overall proportion of those earning less than $9,000 stood at 42.5 per cent last year - a fall from 59.8 per cent in 2010.

At a media briefing, Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Indranee Rajah was asked about these income disparities and the implications for inequality. She said this was no different from trends being observed across the world.

"What we are doing in terms of working to create opportunities, economic growth, identifying new areas - that has obviously had some payoff," said Ms Indranee, who also oversees population issues.

"But at the same time, there will be groups who don't do so well. And you will remember that after the 2015 election... We had identified inequality as one of the areas that we need to work on.

"This is something that after the more recent election, we have said that we will continue to do.

"And you will see that a lot of emphasis has been put in terms of upskilling, job creation, job matching, and on the educational piece as well - all in an effort to help lift all boats and to raise incomes."


Over the decade, median household income from work also rose across the board for all ethnic groups. In nominal terms, last year's figures were $7,972 for Chinese, $5,704 for Malays and $8,500 for Indians.

After accounting for household size, it was Malay households that registered the highest growth per member (4.3 per cent per annum, or 3 per cent in real terms). Their median household income from work per household member was $1,594 last year, compared with $2,603 for the Chinese and $2,521 for Indians.

When asked how this gap could be addressed, Ms Indranee said it would require a combination of initiatives, with some already in place.

She pointed to the M3 collaboration between self-help group Mendaki, the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore and the People's Association Malay Activity Executive Committees Council; Social Service Offices in Housing Board precincts; the ComLink programme to support low-income households; and the Uplift task force helping students from disadvantaged families.

"It is an ongoing work," said Ms Indranee. "You will never get to a stage where everybody's equal, but what we want to do is try and make sure that the gaps are not too large and that different groups can be as close as possible."

The latest census identified that across all ages, the share of non-employed married couples have decreased over the decade, while the proportion with employed wives grew from 52.9 to 60 per cent. Couples where husband and wife were employed made up more than half of all married couples last year.

While the bulk of residents - nearly four in five - continued to reside in HDB flats, the proportion living in condominiums and other apartments grew from 11.5 per cent in 2010 to 16 per cent last year.

The share of single-person households also increased, alongside a decline in couple-based households with children from 56 per cent to 47.7 per cent.

For the first time, it was revealed that nearly 98,000, or 2.5 per cent of residents aged five and above, could not carry out or struggled with at least one basic activity, which includes seeing, hearing, mobility, remembering and concentrating, self-care or communicating.

The census also found that Singapore's city centre continues to draw the largest share of workers, and that Bedok was the most populated planning area of residence last year. Outram had the highest proportion of senior residents, while Punggol had the highest for those aged below five.














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