Saturday 16 February 2019

Digital Defence to be Singapore's sixth pillar of Total Defence; MINDEF to recruit 300 cybersecurity experts, opens cyber training school

Addition of new pillar after 35 years signals the threat posed by cyber attacks and disinformation
By Hariz Baharudin, The Straits Times, 15 Feb 2019

The Republic will introduce digital defence as the sixth pillar in its national defence framework Total Defence, signalling the threat cyber attacks and disinformation pose, and the importance of cyber security.

It is the first time a new pillar has been added to the framework since it was launched 35 years ago.

In his annual Total Defence Day message yesterday, Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen stressed that cyber-security threats and disinformation are a serious danger to Singapore, and emphasised the need to be vigilant against them. "Security threats can be real and physical like terrorism or, just as damaging, can come through the cyberworld."

"Malicious malware can cripple our systems. Fake news can cause racial riots and divide our people," added Dr Ng in his message, which was uploaded on Facebook.

The digital defence pillar will be officially launched today by Communications and Information Minister S. Iswaran, who is also the Minister-in-charge of Cyber Security. It joins the other five pillars of Total Defence: military, civil, economic, social and psychological defence.

In his speech, Dr Ng reiterated that the purpose of Total Defence Day, which falls on Feb 15, is to remember the Japanese Occupation.

On Feb 15, 1942, the British surrendered Singapore to the Japanese, who occupied the country until Sept 12, 1945.

"Our parents and grandparents suffered in the 3½ years of deprivation and humiliation that followed.

"We remember those events of the Japanese Occupation to teach every new generation of Singaporeans about the price of failure to defend this country," he said.

Total Defence was launched in 1984 as a national defence initiative to rally all citizens behind the Singapore Armed Forces during wartime. It was also envisaged to build a sense of determination for Singaporeans to defend the country under all circumstances.

The framework has since undergone reviews and changes, but this is the first time a pillar outside of the original five conceptualised is being added.

Total Defence is now contextualised to address new threats, and applied to address non-military challenges too, such as economic recessions, pandemics and natural disasters.

Trade and Industry Minister Chan Chun Sing also commemorated Total Defence Day yesterday at an inaugural Maritime Nation Forum held at the Singapore Maritime Gallery.

After leading a pledge recitation, he held a dialogue with about 100 forum participants on the challenges that Singapore faces as a maritime nation.

He noted that it was the first time professionals from the maritime industry, Republic of Singapore Navy servicemen and tertiary students were coming together to mark Total Defence Day.

Emphasising the importance of the national defence framework, he said: "When there are external pressures on our country to give in to external demands, Singaporeans must continue to be psychologically resilient and stay together to keep Singapore strong."

Additional reporting by Adrian Lim

Individual's role key in cyber security, says Communications and Information Minister S. Iswaran
Digital defence campaign launched to raise Singaporeans' awareness of their part to play
By Lim Min Zhang, The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

As Singapore strives to be a vibrant smart nation, a new enemy has reared its ugly head and its defeat hinges critically on the country building a strong digital defence, Communications and Information Minister S. Iswaran said yesterday.

Embedded in this defence is the vital role of Singaporeans, he added, noting that scammers have become more skilled at creating believable URLs and customised phishing messages.

Since last September, more than 90 victims have been deceived into giving their DBS Internet banking details on fraudulent websites.

But online scams are just one hostile force among various threats that include malicious cyber attacks, like the recent one on SingHealth, Singapore's largest cluster of healthcare institutions, as well as the widespread circulation of false rumours, such as fake claims about the disruption of a Thaipusam procession in January last year by a police officer and a member of the Hindu Endowments Board.

The scourge, which exists across the economy, government and society, has also prompted the introduction of a sixth pillar in Total Defence - that of digital defence, said Mr Iswaran, who is also Minister-in-charge of Cyber Security. He was speaking at an event to commemorate Total Defence.

The change is the first in 35 years since Total Defence was introduced in 1984 to underline the role of each citizen and the collective commitment to defend "our nation and our way of life".

Last October, Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen hinted at the possible addition, and he confirmed the move in his annual Total Defence Day video message on Thursday.

Yesterday, Mr Iswaran took it a step further when he launched a digital defence campaign logo with the tagline "Be Secure, Alert, and Responsible Online", along with Senior Minister of State for Defence Maliki Osman.

The launch not only coincided with Total Defence Day - which falls on Feb 15 every year to remember the day in 1942 when the British surrendered to the Japanese during World War II - but it was also held in Fort Canning, as the British surrender took place in a bunker there.

The wartime years saw people being tortured by the Kempeitai police and suffering severe shortages, especially of food.

"These stark memories are a vivid reminder of the importance of building a strong Singapore Armed Forces and being prepared for emergencies," said Mr Iswaran.

They also underscore that defending includes building a strong economy, living harmoniously with people of all backgrounds and forging a resilient society with a strong shared Singapore identity.

These are all encapsulated in the five pillars of Total Defence: military, civil, economic, social and psychological.

Referring to the elusive nature of today's digital threats compared with conventional ones,Mr Iswaran warned: "It will only get more difficult to distinguish truth from falsehood, as artificial intelligence exacerbates the spread and seamlessness with which 'deep-fake' images and videos can be created."

In putting digital defence into action, the Singaporean's role cannot be overemphasised, he said.

"Ultimately, the individual citizen is on the front line of digital defence, and we each have a critical role to play by being secure, alert and responsible online."

At the event, Mr Iswaran also witnessed a ceremony where recruits of the Commando Training Institute were presented with their SAR-21 rifles in public for the first time.

He also announced a new initiative to support the digital defence pillar: A new cyber-security theme for the Infocomm Media Development Authority's Lab on Wheels programme, in which buses with hands-on activities aim to visit two secondary schools a week.

Students will learn how personal data can be extracted from social media accounts, how to create a strong password and get tips on identifying phishing e-mails.


Why the new pillar was added to Total Defence
By Lim Min Zhang, The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

Discussions to add a sixth pillar of digital defence to Total Defence began about four years ago, with the formation of the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore in 2015.

While there was some resistance towards changing a framework that had been in place for more than 30 years, the choice to add the extra pillar, rather than explain digital defence using the other five, became increasingly clear, said Nexus director Joseph Tan.

Nexus is the central agency for National Education and Total Defence under the Ministry of Defence.

Col Tan said that some of the factors which led to the decision to drive home the importance of being prepared against digital threats included how Singaporeans did not seem concerned enough about cyber security, and a number of major data breaches, such as the one that happened to SingHealth last year.

Even with an incident as serious as Singapore's worst cyber attack, where hackers stole the personal data of 1.5 million SingHealth patients and the outpatient prescription details of 160,000 people, the average man in the street felt that "it was just NRIC and data, and it was no big deal", said Col Tan.

"We were struggling with whether to wrap digital defence under the other five pillars for a couple of years because we felt that we didn't want to confuse the public.

"(After all) you can explain some of these issues under the five," he told The Straits Times at the Nexus office in Depot Road this week.

"But we simply feel that if we do that, you are diluting it too much. If you want a national-level conversation, if you want the new generation to embrace it as their own, then the new pillar is timely."

The Total Defence framework was launched 35 years ago in a very different era, said Col Tan.

That year, 1984, was when the original Macintosh computer - regarded as the first mass market personal computer - was first sold, he noted. The World Wide Web came along about five years later.

So, Total Defence was launched in a very different context and by a different generation, said Col Tan.

The other five pillars of Total Defence are military, civil, psychological, social and economic defence.

"If you match it to generation, it is actually the Merdeka Generation," he said, referring to Singaporeans born in the 1950s.

"Total Defence was an expression of the nation at that point in time, a collective will, the gotong-royong spirit where everyone helped one another, making personal sacrifices for the community."

Col Tan said it is now timely to update Total Defence, with digitalisation being an increasing part of everyday life, and for a new generation to take ownership of it.

Adding a sixth pillar does not take away the importance of the other five, added Col Tan, who has been Nexus director since 2015.

To promote digital defence, Nexus works with different agencies and ministries, such as the Ministry of Communications and Information, the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Infocomm Media Development Authority and the National Library Board (NLB), he said.

Efforts include the NLB's Source, Understand, Research, Evaluate campaign to promote the importance of information discernment, and the police's advertisements on how to avoid being a target of online scams.

While the key message behind Total Defence has always been that everyone has a part to play, Col Tan believes that digital defence might be the most relevant pillar for the man in the street.

"This is because they are on the front line. If you get hacked, if you get scammed, you are at the front line. So, that is where we want to drive home the message that even more so, everyone has to play a part in cyber security," he said.

He said school curricula will have to be updated. A new logo design competition will also be held as the current Total Defence logo shows only five pillars, he said.

"We will probably do a series of conversations to get people talking (about digital defence). But the youth we have talked to know it is something that their generation will have to deal with, so the sense of ownership is there, and it is quite promising."

Making digital defence part of Singaporeans' mindset
By Hariz Baharudin, The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

Most who go through the education system here would be familiar with the concept of Total Defence.

Some would recall drama performances during school assembly, some remember the national warning system tests and others even can recollect the taste of sweet potatoes or tapioca that they had to eat during recess time to remember what it was like for their seniors during the Japanese Occupation.

Through these efforts since its launch in 1984, the concept of Total Defence and its five pillars have been seared into the minds of Singaporeans.

Psychological, social, civil, military and economic defence are not alien concepts and, through Total Defence, their importance is drilled into everyone.

With the inclusion of digital defence as the sixth pillar yesterday, the aim is to ensure the dangers of online threats and the part everyone has to play in combating them will be etched into the minds of Singaporeans too.

From a young age, Singaporeans will hopefully better understand the necessity of good cyber hygiene and be sensitised to methods hackers can use to wreak havoc online, like phishing e-mails or malware links.

Some might say this effort is too little too late, as the inclusion comes after many cyber attacks both here and overseas.

Singapore was struck by its worst cyber attack last June, when the data of 1.5 million patients and the outpatient prescription information of 160,000 people, including Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong, were stolen by hackers.

Recently, it was announced that the personal data of 14,200 people on Singapore's HIV Registry was leaked.

Attacks happen worldwide too. In December 2015, in the middle of a cold winter's night, a cyber attack on Ukraine's power grid left more than 200,000 people without electricity for hours.

But any effort to bolster defences against cyberthreats, no matter what kind of effort it may be or what its timing is, could make a difference.

Take the findings from the high-level investigation into the SingHealth data breach.

One of the contributing factors which allowed hackers to get in was poor cyber hygiene by an administrator who used the easily guessed P@ssw0rd as password.

An individual sensitised to the need for good cyber habits and the dangers of weak passwords would not make this mistake.

Furthermore, digital defence may have the potential to refresh the concept of Total Defence, seeing that it is a pillar that cuts across all the other five.

For military defence, the Singapore Armed Forces has been investing resources in training cyber defenders, with plans to build a corp of about 2,600 cyber defenders in the next decade.

The threat that fake news poses to the racial and religious harmony of Singapore is real, and a lack of cyber vigilance could allow disinformation to tear apart the social defence Singapore has built up. And no matter how prosperous Singapore is and how strong its economic defence is, any corporation can be brought to its knees if hackers are allowed to get in and use their many high-tech tools to disrupt business.

It is important to remember that this is the first time since Total Defence was launched 35 years ago that a new pillar is being added.

The threat that online attacks pose has become so high that it is now recognised in what is arguably the most recognised national defence initiative. So, the inclusion of digital defence in Total Defence might be late, but it is better late than never.

Given the risks that cyber attacks and disinformation pose, and the importance of cyber security, any efforts made to beef up the latter will always be important.

The challenge now is for the Government to ensure that this new pillar is implemented as effectively as the others, and without diluting the earlier five.

A slew of outreach initiatives was mentioned by Minister for Communications and Information S. Iswaran, who is also Minister-in-charge of Cyber Security, at yesterday's launch of the digital defence pillar. He also said that digital defence is critical in Singapore's aim to be a vibrant Smart Nation, which is true.

Even with the most advanced of solutions and technologies, a nation would not be a smart one if it does not have proper security infrastructure.

Cyber attacks that leverage a nation's interconnectedness for nefarious purposes can cripple and destroy it.

With the inclusion of the digital defence pillar in Total Defence, cyber security is elevated to the same position as our racial harmony, our military capabilities or our economic competitiveness.

That means we cannot take digital defence for granted, and we have to always do more to build it up.

For a start, the outreach initiatives for digital defence cannot be one-off efforts.

Collaboration - among the private sector, the Government and the public - is also key, given the multi-faceted nature of digital threats and defence.

Remembering those lost during World War II
The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

Retired businessman Loh Weng Kee, 78, could not hold back his tears at the War Memorial Park during a service yesterday in commemoration of civilian victims of the Japanese Occupation. He was accompanied by his wife Tim Yap Wah, 70, a retired businesswoman.

His father was taken away by the Japanese when Mr Loh was a month old, and never returned. He said: "It was a terrible, terrible chapter in our history. We still remember it vividly, although memories of our hardships are fading with each new generation. The young must know about this chapter and the importance of peace because wartime means great suffering for all."

The service was also to mark Total Defence Day. It was co-organised by the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCCI) and the Central National Education Office of the Ministry of Defence (Mindef). About 1,000 representatives from the SCCCI, Mindef, diplomatic corps, religious organisations, National Youth Council, business and clan associations, uniformed groups, schools and veterans' leagues attended the service, along with the families of the victims.

Viral Gojek video a reminder that people still fall back on certain identity markers: Chan Chun Sing
By Fabian Koh, The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

A video of the recent spat between a Gojek driver and his passenger went viral, and many Singaporeans laughed at it, but Trade and Industry Minister Chan Chun Sing sees it as a reminder of the potential faultlines in Singapore society.

The video of the incident last month over the driver's route had ended with the driver talking to an auxiliary cop in Malay and the passenger questioning: "Is it because I am Chinese?"

Mr Chan said: "Where did that come from? While we laugh at it, sometimes when it comes to the crunch, people fall back on certain markers of their identity, which perhaps reveals certain things that we should be aware of," he said yesterday. Had such an incident happened in the 1960s, when racial tensions were high and riots broke out, there could have been "very different consequences", he noted.

Mr Chan said that Singaporeans should prioritise the Singapore identity ahead of their ethnic identities, "but we must never take it for granted that it will naturally be so".

He cited how in other countries like America, "even after hundreds of years, the visceral feeling of difference is still quite raw".

He was speaking at the Asia Pacific Programme for Senior Military Officers Alumni Distinguished Speakers' Lecture.

"Our multi-ethnic and multi-cultural ancestries mean that we will always be subjected to attempts to influence and control our domestic agenda," he said in a speech.

"They can come in the form of incentives, especially with the promise of short-term returns. They can come in the form of threats, to make us afraid or to make us waver. Yet at other times, they can take the form of dividing and trying to divide Singaporeans and our society to the benefit of the foreign players," added Mr Chan.

This threat is compounded by the pervasiveness of the Internet and social media, he said.

Cyberspace is an easy and affordable channel to use to spread content at far greater speed, and the "impact of messages or content sharing through the ubiquitous smartphone must never be underestimated", he added.

Enemies can now use digital means to attack Singapore, destroying the economy, tearing the social fabric and targeting citizens' fundamental beliefs and commitments.

Senior Minister of State for Law Edwin Tong had on Tuesday told Parliament that there was a "curious" spike in online comments critical of Singapore on social media, when the dispute with Malaysia over maritime and airspace issues late last year was top news. Mr Tong said the posts were made using "essentially" anonymous accounts.

Yesterday, Mr Chan said managing the resultant challenges to societal cohesion and stability will become even more critical, but it is not practical for Singapore to shut its doors. He said: "That is not the way we will defend ourselves. We will learn to operate in this new terrain, navigate this new terrain, and leverage this new terrain for our own defences."

"However, we need to be vigilant, watchful, but never fearful," he added. "Social and psychological defence have become even more critical at this juncture of our history."

Mr Chan's speech yesterday came as digital defence was added as the sixth pillar of Total Defence on Total Defence Day, which falls on Feb 15 every year to mark the day the British surrendered the island to Japanese forces.

Mr Chan also said the Government has to help people understand the reality of geopolitics and the challenges facing Singapore.

"When things happen or when we are targeted, understanding the 'why' is more critical than just comprehending the 'what'. Know why others are feeling a certain way and why they are taking a certain action towards us," he said.

Mr Chan added that in countering threats from external influences, Singaporeans must always bear in mind the country's long-term interest. "We have to remember, each time and every time, that only Singaporeans will decide our future and not allow anyone else to coerce or decide for us," he said.

Parliament: Spike in online talk critical of Singapore during maritime and airspace spat with Malaysia
Incident shows how foreign interference can take place: Edwin Tong
By Adrian Lim, Political Correspondent, The Straits Times, 13 Feb 2019

When Singapore's dispute with Malaysia over maritime and airspace issues late last year was top news, there was a "curious" spike in online comments critical of the Republic on social media, said Senior Minister of State for Law Edwin Tong.

These posts were made using what were essentially anonymous accounts, Mr Tong disclosed in Parliament yesterday.

He also said that on the issue of traffic jams at land checkpoints, these "avatar accounts", with profile photos that do not show the user's face, account for about 40 per cent of comments on the alternative media's social media pages.

This shows how foreign actors can interfere in Singapore's politics through online campaigns and false information, he said.

But steps are being taken to update the laws later this year to counter such threats, he added.

As for the case of the Singapore-Malaysia dispute, Mr Tong said: "We do not know who these suspicious accounts belong to. Nor do we know if they are being coordinated by foreign actors. But it is clear that these accounts have sought to give and create an artificial impression to netizens of the opposition to Singapore's position, at a time of heightened bilateral difficulties."

Mr Tong was replying to Ms Cheng Li Hui (Tampines GRC), who asked if there had been instances of foreign interference in Singapore.

He pinpointed last year's SingHealth hacking incident, saying the cyber attackers - who are advanced and typically state-linked - wanted to extract the health data of Singaporeans, particularly that of Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.

"Cyber hackings are often deployed in concert with hostile information campaigns to search for information that can be weaponised," he added.

Earlier, Mr Tong described how foreign actors had interfered in the politics and elections in countries such as the United States and France.

"No country is immune. This is asymmetric information warfare, fought in a theatre and an era with no distinction between war and peace," he said.

"In this battlefield, Singapore, an open, democratic, digitally connected and diverse country, is especially vulnerable.

"We are a young country with sensitive fault-lines that foreign actors can exploit to foment distrust and ill-will among our various communities," he added.

Mr Tong said the nations he highlighted had learnt hard lessons and were taking action to expose and counter such interference.

To ward off foreign interference in local politics and elections, Singapore is developing a strategy on two fronts. Firstly, to sensitise Singaporeans to the threat and nurture a discerning public, he said.

"We are our own first line of defence. We must learn to be sceptical of and be able to discern falsehoods or half-truths, and detect foreign actors and their attempts to interfere in our politics."

Secondly, the legal framework will be updated and enhanced to counter hostile information campaigns. Mr Tong said the new laws have two broad objectives.

One, to let the Government "act swiftly and effectively to disrupt and counter false, misleading and inauthentic information and narratives spread by foreign actors".

"We must also be able to pre-emptively expose clandestine foreign interference campaigns," he added.

Two, to prevent foreign actors from manipulating politically involved individuals and organisations through the use of proxies, funding and donations.

He cited the case of Dr Huang Jing, a former professor at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, whom the Government identified as an agent of influence acting on behalf of a foreign country. Dr Huang was stripped of his permanent residency status in 2017.

"We must not allow foreign actors to undermine our political sovereignty, nor our ability to make our own choices on how we want to govern our country and live our lives," Mr Tong said.

Parliament: Foreign countries hit by hostile information campaigns
The Straits Times, 16 Feb 2019

In Parliament yesterday, Senior Minister of State for Law Edwin Tong described how foreign actors sought to interfere with the domestic politics of countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and France.


A foreign hostile information campaign sought to influence the outcome of the 2016 US presidential election and undermine democracy.

HOW: Fake social media accounts were used to impersonate real Americans, and to infiltrate and influence society. The accounts spread falsehoods and false narratives on divisive socio-political issues such as race, gun control and immigration.

Bots, or autonomous programs, along with digital advertisements were used by the foreign actor to amplify its reach and viewpoints rapidly, giving the impression that such views were popular.

Two fake Facebook accounts with opposing ideologies were cultivated, and a protest and counter-protest were organised at the same place and time, leading real American protesters to show up.

REACH: Over two years, about 126 million US Facebook users were exposed to content generated by the foreign operation. The campaign polarised and generated deep suspicion in American society and against its institutions.


Domestic grievances were exploited to turn the British against UK and European Union institutions and policies in the referendum on Brexit.

HOW: Social media, bots and fake accounts were used to spread false claims. A steady stream of anti-immigration falsehoods by foreign-linked social media accounts made people feel threatened and built a narrative of a British government that failed to protect its citizens.

REACH: A study suggested that more than 150,000 foreign-linked accounts tweeted more than 45,000 pro-Brexit messages in the last 48 hours of the campaign.


Foreign actors tried to interfere with the 2017 French presidential election.

HOW: Just two days before the second round of voting, 9GB of data hacked from then presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron's campaign was leaked online.

REACH: In just 3 ½ hours, the leak was tweeted 47,000 times, with some suspicious Twitter accounts, likely bots in action, posting more than 150 tweets an hour.

*  MINDEF launches recruitment hunt for cyber security specialists, sets up new cyber training school
New cyber training school also set up amid efforts to boost digital defence
By Lim Min Zhang, The Straits Times, 21 Feb 2019

The Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) is on a recruitment hunt for cyber-security specialists whose mission will be to beef up its cyber defences.

It has also set up a new cyber training school that will conduct courses for such specialised personnel and also help improve cyber hygiene for servicemen and employees across the ministry and the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF).

In a statement yesterday, MINDEF said it hopes to recruit some 300 personnel to perform specialised operational roles in areas such as cyber incident response, monitoring of computer networks, and testing for security weaknesses in IT infrastructure and applications.

The announcements were made on the sidelines of an Advisory Council on Community Relations in Defence (Accord) visit to Stagmont Camp hosted by Senior Minister of State for Defence Heng Chee How.

Mr Heng told reporters after the visit that the establishment of these schemes and the cyber defence school will put Singapore in a better position to defend itself against cyber threats.

"(We have set up these capabilities) to ensure that we are operationally ready even in the face of these attacks so that we can protect our sovereignty and give peace of mind to Singaporeans," he said.

Singapore has stepped up efforts on cyber security following attacks globally and here in recent years, such as the WannaCry ransomware attacks in 2017 and the SingHealth data breach in June last year.

MINDEF was also hit by the theft of NRIC numbers, telephone numbers and birth dates of 850 personnel in February 2017, with the attack executed remotely over the Internet.

Digital defence came under the spotlight recently with its launch as the sixth pillar of Total Defence last Friday - the first such addition to the framework in 35 years.

In February last year, MINDEF introduced a scheme for full-time national servicemen (NSF) cyber specialists, where they take classes under the Singapore Institute of Technology's cyber-security degree programme, while being deployed in advanced cyber-defence roles.

The 300 regular personnel will come under two schemes. These are: the Command, Control, Communications and Computers Expert (C4X) vocation under the military experts scheme, and the Defence Cyber Expert (DCX) job specialisation for defence executive officers.

The C4X scheme will be implemented in the middle of this year, while the DCX scheme started late last year.

The SAF Cyber Defence School, which was established last April, was opened yesterday by director of military intelligence and Chief C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence), Brigadier-General Ng Chad-Son. It has run courses such as the Cyber Defence Operator and Cyber Specialist Cadet courses, meant for NSFs in the cyber vocation.

For DCX and C4X personnel, up to 20 weeks of training will be done at the school, which will also conduct cyber-security workshops for servicemen and employees of MINDEF and the SAF to strengthen education on cyber standards, regulations and best practices, and to inculcate strong cyber awareness.

Depending on their operational roles, DCX and C4X personnel will be trained in technical skills, such as threat hunting, malware forensics, cryptography, network security and cyber analytics.

Military Expert 4 S. Subash, 30, a plans officer under SAF C4 Command who has signed up to be a C4X, said he will have to take a number of external courses as part of his transition process.

"This is to ensure we keep up with evolving technologies and to be updated with the cyber threats out there," he said.

Defence Cyber Expert Serena Ong, 31, said she took on the job because it was challenging and there was a lot of room for professional growth, with cyber threats growing and evolving all the time.

"The DCX scheme is good because now there is a shortage of cyber-security professionals not just in Singapore, but also around the world. This scheme will help to widen the pool of candidates," she said.

Total Defence Strengthened with Addition of Digital Defence as the Sixth Pillar -15 Feb 2019

Speech by Mr S Iswaran, Minister for Communications and Information and Minister-in-Charge of Cybersecurity, at the Total Defence Day Commemoration Event 2019 on 15 February 2019

Oral Answer by Senior Minister of State for Law, Mr Edwin Tong to Parliamentary Question on Foreign Interference -12 Feb 2019

Committee of Inquiry on SingHealth cyber attack public report; IHiS sacks 2 employees, imposes financial penalty on CEO

Singapore-Malaysia sea and air disputes: Foreign Minister Vivian Balakrishnan Ministerial Statement in Parliament on 14 January 2019

HIV-positive status of 14,200 people leaked online; Health Minister Gan Kim Yong explains actions MOH took over HIV data breach in ministerial statement on 12 February 2019

Select Committee on fake news: 22 recommendations unveiled to combat online falsehoods in Singapore

MINDEF Boosts Cyber Defence with Cyber Expert Schemes and New Training School -20 fEB 2019

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